The son of Zenobia Vabalathus became joint ruler of Palmyra with his mother on the assassination of Odenathus. Gallienus refused to grant him the titles which had been conferred upon Odenathus, and Claudius II did likewise, though neither emperor was able to challenge the power of Palmyra in the East. Aurelian, however, did grant Vabalathus these titles, but in A.D. 271 the latter was proclaimed Augustus and Aurelian marched against the rival emperor. In the ensuing straggle the Palmyrene Empire fell to Aurelian, and Zenobia and Vabalathus were taken as captives to Rome.

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